Webpages with more general information

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Webpages with more detailed information.

Discussion Development

Thesis, CO2 adsorption/emissions
Kualitas Lahan
Land Qualities
Land Classes and Areas

Environmental Impacts

Impact, including CO2 emission
Problems, including CH4 emissions
Forest Fires
Landsat TM

Management inputs

Water Management System
Macro Design
Micro Design
Water Control
Model Areas
Information System



Land Classes and Areas

The Nation Wide Survey of Coastal and Near-Coastal Swampland identified some 25 million ha *(250 000 km2) of swampland. Considerable parts are already occupied by spontaneous or government- sponsored settlers.

The Website of PU Jakarta mentioned earlier 39 million ha swamp land, but that figure includes inland swamps. Most of the inland swamps are not suitable for agricultural development and the present  rice growing areas of the inland swamps (Lebak areas) have limited potentials for extending tproduction. The main problem is deep flooding and no potentials for drainage by gravity.

About 16 million ha of the 25 million ha surveyed are unsuitable for any sustained agricultural use, mainly because of the occurrence of deep peat soils of extreme low fertility and/or non-sustainable drainage potentials after subsidence of the land. Other areas  are unsuitable because of severe flooding conditions. Some 5.6 million ha seem suitable for development according the 1984 field survey. About 3.3 million ha was already occupied. (Data from 1984; it is expected that now already 5 million ha is occupied, but major parts of these newly occupied areas in deep peat soils that are not sustainable by loosing their drainage potential by gravity). Pumping is considered not sustainable because the costs are too high for drainage by pumping in the tropical rain forest climate.

Including the already occupied suitable areas, the total area swampland in Indoenesia that is suitable for agriculture is about 9 million ha. It is estimated that of those 9 million ha swampland about 8 million ha are acid sulphate soils with pyrite layers within 1 m depth or peat soils with pyrite layers in the subsoil. That makes Indonesia the country with the largest area of pyritic soils in the world.

Gross areas ('000 ha) Sumatra Kalimantan Papua Total
Area surveyed 9800 7000 7800 24600
Suitable land (not occupied in 1984) 1400 1400 2800 5600
Occupied land (in 1984) 2100 1200 - 3300
Unsuitable land 6300 4400 5000 15700

Deep peat soils (more than 70 cm)

4900 3300 2800 11000

Reference is made to WebPages Environment for some information on the not occupied land. 

To see the maps of the Nation Wide Study of coastal and near-coastal swamplands of Indonesia (1984) click  Nation Wide.  This study  is still the most reliable and intensive swampland survey ever be done at Nation Wide level; concerning: soil types-depth of peat-natural vegetation-agro climate-hydrology and topography-tidal movements/ranges/levels-salinity. Click the map you want to see or Right Click the map you want to download and use Save Target as.. (for Windows Internet Explorer) or Save Link as.. (for  Mozilla Firefox)) For viewing the legend for the hydro maps: click Hydro Central Sumatra or Hydro West Kalimantan or Hydro Central Irian

The Map of the swamp area of Indonesia and possible development blocks.

indoswmp.gif (27877 bytes)


There are hotspots on the image map with more detailed maps of the swamp areas . The Berbak hotspot is connected to the Landsat images of Berbak National Park. These images show the severe threats to the Park by forest fires. These two Landsat images also show the Swamp Schemes of Jambi between the Batang Hari river/Berbak river and the Coast.


See also Table of Contents.